Second-tier test for quantification of alloisoleucine and branched-chain amino acids in dried blood spots to improve newborn screening for maple syrup urine disease (MSUD)

Newborn screening for maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) relies on finding increased concentrations of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) leucine, isoleucine, and valine by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). d-Alloisoleucine (allo-Ile) is the only pathognomonic marker of MSUD, but it cannot be identified by existing screening methods because it is not differentiated from isobaric amino acids. Furthermore, newborns receiving total parenteral nutrition often have increased concentrations of BCAAs. To improve the specificity of newborn screening for MSUD and to reduce the number of diet-related false-positive results, we developed a LC-MS/MS method for quantifying allo-Ile.