Cartilage hair hypoplasia: characteristics and orthopaedic manifestations

Cartilage hair hypoplasia (CHH) is a rare metaphyseal chondrodysplasia characterized by short stature and short limbs, found primarily in Amish and Finnish populations. Cartilage hair hypoplasia is caused by mutations in the RMRP gene located on chromosome 9p13.3. The disorder has several characteristic orthopaedic manifestations, including joint laxity, limited elbow extension, ankle varus, and genu varum. Immunodeficiency is of concern in most cases. Although patients exhibit orthopaedic problems, the orthopaedic literature on CHH patients is scant at best. The objective of this study was to characterize the orthopaedic manifestations of CHH based on the authors’ unique access to the largest collection of CHH patients ever reported.